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Microorganism manual

 

Bacillus cereus is a sporeformer which is able to live in different conditions but requires air. B. cereus has been found in a variety of foods that include meat, seafood, milk, and vegetables.

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Vibrio cholerae Serogroup O1 is present in lukewarm inlets and marine coastal areas around the US. It takes about one million ingested organisms to cause illness. V. cholerae O1 is naturally present in nonpolluted waters and is also preset in fecally polluted coastal water. This bacterium is found in shellfish harvested from these areas. Shellfish can also become recontaminated through cross-contamination.

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Vibrio cholerae Serogroup Non-O1 is related to V. cholerae serogroup O1, but this bacterium only infects humans and other primates. Disease causing and non-disease causing strains of V. cholerae non-O1 are naturally found in marine environments around the US. It takes more than one million ingested organisms to cause illness. Shellfish harvested from coastal waters off the US often contain V. cholerae non-O1. Shellfish can also become recontaminated through cross-contamination.

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Vibrio vulnificus  is in the same family as Vibrio cholerae. V.vulnificus can be found in warm seawater. Infection can be caused when people eat contaminated seafood. Most cases occur on the Gulf Coast states. Raw seafood is a cause of infection, particularly oysters. V. vulnificus does not change the appearance, taste or odor of an otherwise healthy oyster.

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Escherichia coli O157:H7 is just one of hundreds of different strains in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Even though most of the strains are harmless to healthy humans, E. coli O157:H7 produces a powerful toxin. Although the exact amount of organisms required to cause disease isn't known, it is felt that the amount is very small.

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Candida albicans causes a fungal infection. The infection occurs when Candida organisms that are naturally found in the body enter the bloodstream or multiply too rapidly where naturally found.

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Aspergillus fumigatus spores are airborne  and are among the most common in the environment.

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Staphylococcus aureus is most known as "staph". This bacteria is found easily on the skin and noses of healthy people. When it gets into the body, it causes an infection.

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Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that is found in soil and water. Some studies have suggested that 1-10% of humans carry it and can be found in some types of mammals, birds, fish, and shellfish. L. monocytogenes is very tough, not being affected by drying or heat. It has the ability not only to resist freezing also but to multiply at temperatures as low as 3░C.  L. monocytogenes has been associated with smoked and raw fish.

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Legionella pneumophila loves warm stagnant water. This is where it thrives. Areas such as cooling towers, hot water tanks and certain plumbing can be breeding grounds for L. pneumophila. Especially if the water is 90░ to 105░F. L. pneumophila is spread when people breathe in mists that come from water sources that are contaminated with the bacteria.

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Salmonella are passed from the feces of humans or animals to other humans or animals. Humans usually get the bacteria by eating food contaminated with animal feces. The problem is that contaminated food usually looks and smells normal, so it is easy to pass the bacteria on or get cross contamination.

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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a bacterium that is commonly found in the soil and water and on the surfaces of plants. P. aeruginosa is able to live in environments that lack soil and water, and able to live without organic growth factors, although it can use over 30 compounds for growth. The optimum temperature for growth is 37░ and continues to grow in temperatures up to 42░. It is tolerant of a wide variety of physical conditions and naturally likes biofilm. P. aeruginosa's resistance to the majority of antibiotics is what makes it a dangerous pathogen.

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Streptococcus faecium is a microorganism that is primarily passed through food. It takes more that 107 organisms to make someone sick. 

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Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most commonly known as brewers yeast.

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Proteus mirabilis is found in the ocean, soil and sewage. This bacterium causes pneumonia in some people and urinary tract infections. 

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Referenced from Center for Disease Control

and FDA Bad Bug Book

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